Updates since Jan 2022
Decree 208/2021 (IT) transposing 2018/1808
IAB TCF Framework and GDPR February 2022
Commission guidance promotional pricing
Prohibited and controlled advertising in Italy March 2022
Above from Studio Legale Jacobacci & Associati
As is misleading advertising practices March 2022
First enforcement of sponsorship ambush Decree (EN)
Above from Portolano Cavallo/ Gala May 2022
EU green claims regulation December 2022
Above from the NYT Jan 2023
Directive 2019/2161 transposed via LD No.26
EN trans of the above in text. CMS Italy here
Green Claims Directive Proposal. March 22, 2023
IAP Code art. 27 amended for crypto assets
Related guidelines here (IT). March 22, 2023
Prohibited advertising Jacobacci/ Lex March 28, 2023
DPA Dark Patterns ruling RPC/ Lex July 7, 2023
Above from Flu; IAP contributed. July 2023 (IT)
Q&A: online advertising in Italy. ICT Sept 29, 2023
Important Garante case GALA October 6, 2023
Above re data retention indicates new stance from regulator
Harting/ Lex June 19, 2023. See below
ChatGPT silenced by the Italian authorities. Ius Laboris/ Lex; April 6, 2023
Italy restores ChatGPT after OpenAI responds to regulator. Reuters April 28, 2023
The Code of Marketing Communication Self-Regulation (IT / EN), which is administered by IAP, provides the core advertising rules in Italy. The code sets out the general rules of conduct in Title I, covers rules for 'sales systems' (e.g. distance selling and prize promotions) in Title II A and specific product categories under Title II B. IAP’s Digital Chart (IT / EN) reviews the most commonly used forms of online marcoms including influencer marketing (blogging/ vlogging/ celebrity; see GALA commentary July 5, 2023 here), native, in-app, SNS, advergames, and establishes criteria for the recognisability of these in line with article 7 of the IAP Code, Identification of advertising. Details under our channel section C, or see the linked file.
Statutory regulation of advertising is from the Consumer Code (IT / EN key clauses inc. 2023 amends) LD 206/2005 which implemented the Unfair Commercial Practices Directive UCPD 2005/29/EC and protects consumers against e.g. misleading and aggressive advertising or marketing; LD 145/2007 (EN / IT) which implemented article 14 UCPD 2005/29/EC protects businesses from misleading advertising, and sets out conditions for comparative advertising (art. 4); and article 2598 (EN) of the Italian Civil Code on unfair competition. Details under content section B or see the linked documents. This case, courtesy of Gala/ Lex November 2021, is an example of how the Consumer Code is applied by the authorities, specifically the Italian Competition Authority AGCM, in the context of some apparently dubious advertising from Crystal Drops co. on the TikTok platform. What is new in the Italian Consumer Code from ICT Legal Consulting January 2022 sets out amends to the Consumer Code that relate largely to sales contracts and the supply of digital content, transposing measures from directives 2019/771 (Sale of Goods Directive) and 2019/770 (Digital Content and Digital Services Directive). More recent (March 2023) amends are a result of transposition from Directive 2019/2161 delivered by Legislative Decree No. 26 of March 7, 2023 (IT), which introduces clauses related to search rankings and how they are achieved, the validity of consumer surveys, the consistency of international campaigns and promotional pricing requirements, the latter shown under the Pricing header later in this section. See E-commerce and new specific information requirements from CMS Italy March 21, 2023 and for a broader picture Q&A: misleading advertising practices in Italy from Studio Legale Jacobacci & Associati/ Lex March 28, 2023. Not that broad, however, as there seems to be no recognition of the role of self-regulation. Earlier contributions from the same company are shown under Updates.
Broadcast/ AV/ Influencers
The arrival of Directive 2018/1808, which significantly amended the scope of the AVMS Directive 2010/13/EU by extending rules online and into video-sharing platforms in particular, was recognised by the Legislative Decree of 8 November 2021, No. 208 (IT), which largely repealed the former AVMS Code. This is a significant move in AV regulation, reflecting the 'digitisation' of European audiovisual media. Commercial communication content rules are not significantly changed, however - the Directive's amends in that context are here. Arguably the most significant development is the new rules under article 28b of the Directive and 41/42 of the Decree for video-sharing platforms (VSPS). These rules include the application of the Directive's commercial communication articles linked earlier to VSPS and require the platforms to make available to those who post video(s) a means by which they can declare if such videos contain commercial content, if known, and similarly the platform must advise users accordingly. There is some debate about whether Influencers/ vloggers constitute an 'audiovisual media service.' Best source for understanding the issue and the regulators' view of it is ERGA's 2021 Analysis and recommendations concerning the regulation of vloggers (EN). Channel section C for more, or see the linked documents.
Privacy issues should be overseen by specialist advisors
Harting/ Lex June 19, 2023
The Data Protection Code (DPC) LD 196/2003 (IT), containing provisions for the adaptation of national law to Regulation 2016/ 679 (GDPR) was amended and re-named (as shown) by LD 101/2018 (IT); section 1 of the DPC now provides that the processing of personal data will be according to the standards of GDPR (see para below). There’s an English translation of the DPC from the Data Protection Authority Garante here (Dec 2021 text). Section 130 of the DPC covers unsolicited communications, implementing the e-Privacy Directive 2002/58/EC providing for opt-in consent to electronic communications. Some data processing aspects of the article are now subject to GDPR. Legislative Decree 70/2003 IT / EN (the e-Commerce law, relevant articles: 7 - 9,12,13), which implements the e-Commerce Directive 2000/31/EC inter alia provides requirements applicable to advertising from ‘information society services.’ There's a 'succinct Q&A on the law and practice surrounding online advertising in Italy, covering key regulations and restrictions' from ICT Legal Consulting here (Oct 2022). European Data Protection Board (EDPB) Guidelines 8/2020 on the targeting of social media users, adopted April 2021, are here. And finally, Garante/ GPDP published in July 2021 Guidelines for cookies and other tracking tools (IT); the English version is on the link or here. Finally finally, this Feb 27, 2023 piece from CMS Italy/ Lex is a helpful catch-up with the EDPB cookie banner task force findings and potential implications in Italy.
Important Garante case GALA October 6, 2023
Above re data retention indicates new stance from regulator
Meta’s Ad Practices Ruled Illegal Under E.U. Law. From the NYT Jan 2023
The General Data Protection Regulation 2016/679 (GDPR) applied directly in all EU member states from 25 May 2018, replacing the Data Protection Directive 95/46/EC. The European Commission page on GDPR is here. Member states, Italy included, tend to retain their national privacy legislation and ‘recognise’ GDPR. Italy’s key data protection law LD 196/2003, referenced above, was amended following an enabling law 163/2017 (IT) and Guidelines (IT) from Garante, the Data Protection Authority. There’s a helpful blog on those from DLA Piper here. Garante published on 24 May 2021 European Regulation: Guidelines for DPOs (IT) and in English The Personal Data Protection Code from March 2020, as linked above, which lays down the provisions to adapt the national legislation to GDPR. Specific rules related to the above are set out by channel in our section C, headers as relevant. See this significant piece from August 2022 The Garante warns against personalised ads based on legitimate interest by Orsingher Ortu Avvocati Associati/ Lex.
EASA update on below October 18, 2023
Proposal for a Directive on Green Claims. March 22, 2023
European Commission press release on the above here
Helpful summary and commentary here from GALA/Lex also March 22
As the whole territory of environmental claims is high profile for well-documented reasons, we reference two late 2021 self-regulatory cases, one from the U.K. and one from Sweden. The UK case relates to Lipton Ice Tea: a complaint about a '100% recycled' claim was upheld despite the advertising including a qualification; an interesting commentary here from GALA/ Mondaq with reference to a similar case in the U.S. The Swedish case concerns a complaint against an Innocent Drinks 'greenwashing' claim; the commercial has been withdrawn, but there's (not entirely objective) reference to it in this activist video. The UK's ASA also upheld a complaint about a very similar ad.
In self-regulation, article 12 of the IAP Code of Marketing Communication covers 'protection of the natural environment.' The IAP jury/ Comitato di Controllo decision 50/2021 (IT) December 2021 covers how Freshly Cosmetics transgressed article 12: broad claims, no substantiation. On an international scale, chapter D Environmental Claims in Marketing Communications from the ICC Advertising and Marketing Communications Code (EN) is also relevant, together with The ICC Framework for Responsible Environmental Marketing Communications 2021 (EN). Still internationally, the WFA launched their Planet Pledge in April 2021 and Global Guidance on Environmental Claims April 2022. In October 2021, Google launched a new monetisation policy for Google advertisers, publishers and YouTube creators 'that will prohibit ads for, and monetization of, content that contradicts well-established scientific consensus around the existence and causes of climate change.' More here. In the national legislative sphere, CMS Italy's (via Lex) piece Sustainability, Advertising and Greenwashing discusses some of the broader claims and their legal compliance and the role of competition authority AGCM, who imposed a fine of 5 million euros in January 2020 on the company Eni S.p.A. for the dissemination of misleading advertising messages for their Diesel+ fuel; press release here (EN). The use of environmental claims in advertising is assessed against the Consumer Code referenced above and transposing the UCPD 2005/29/EC. Guidance for this latter legislation is in the form of Commission Guidance on application of the UCPD (December 2021); see section 4.1.1. for environmental claims. ICLG's Consumer Protection Laws and Regulations from April 2023 sets out how various jurisdictions, Italy included, apply consumer protection law to environmental claims.
Pricing in advertising is often a source of complaint and sometimes competitor litigation. It’s best to check prices in ads, especially new ads, with legal advisors
1. SELF-REGULATION; IAP Code
1.3. Terminology/ statistical data
1.5. Guarantees and warranties
1.8. Superstition, credulity, fear
1.9. Violence, vulgarity, indecency
1.10. Moral, civil, & religious beliefs; human dignity
1.11. Children and young people
1.12. Protection of the natural environment
1.13 Imitation, confusion and exploitation
2.1. Consumer Code
2.2. LD 145/2007 Comparative advertising
2.2.1. Case law and IAP rulings
2.3. Rules in audiovisual media
3. SPECIFIC CLAIM AREAS
3.1.1. Self-regulation (national)
3.1.2. International self-regulation
3.1.3. Horizontal statutory legislation
3.1.4. Commission guidance
1.7. Identification (Art. 7)
See rulings from the IAP Jury regarding article 10:
1.16. Variability (Art. 16)
Also shown above under relevant articles; the linked files are summaries in English
On 11th February 2019, IAP launched a new online database containing all the formal adjudications from 1966 to present day, with real-time updates. This new tool ‘greatly simplifies the identification of adjudications and allows users to login through different devices. The database is available through a subscription, free for the first 30 days.’
2.1. Key clauses Consumer Code
2.2. Key clauses LD 145/2007 (EN); Comparative advertising Section 4
Comparative advertising shall, as far as the comparison is concerned, be permitted when the following conditions are met:
2.2.1. Case law and AGCM and IAP rulings
Case law is reported essentially verbatim; in some instances, commentary has been taken from online contributions. None of this text represents a view or guidance from GRS, but information to be interpreted as marketers, agencies, or advisors see fit
2.3. Content rules in audiovisual media
3.1.1 Self-regulation (national)
Article 12 IAP Code; Protection of the Natural Environment:
3.1.2. International self-regulation
The ICC Advertising and Marketing Communications Code (EN) will apply, in particular:
3.1.3. 'Horizontal' legislation
3.1.4. MDEC/ Commission guidance
Check prices in advertising with legal advisors
3.2.2. Legislation and key case
Chapter III, LD 208/2021, art. 43
Extracts of the more general clauses. There are also clauses related to alcohol and to gambling
General principles: audiovisual commercial communications must be readily recognisable as such; surreptitious audiovisual commercial communications are prohibited. And must not:
The content and scheduling of a sponsored programme must not be influenced by the sponsor so as to affect the responsibility and editorial independence of the media service provider
Q&A: online advertising in Italy. ICT September 29, 2023
This particular section provides the broad regulatory picture for the commercial digital environment. More specific channel rules such as email, OBA etc. follow. Advertising online is subject to the rules in Owned and (some) Earned space as well as Paid, which makes the definition of advertising important. The IAP version is ‘advertising and all other forms of communication including corporate and institutional messages whose aim is to promote the sale of goods or services irregardless (sic) of the modalities (means) used’. This August 2021 'Q&A: online advertising in Italy' from ICT Legal Consulting/ Lex incorporates some definitions and is a good round-up of the issues; updated October 2022
In the context of these channels, the influence of legislation is significant, particularly on the use of personal data. GDPR’s impact is shown under particular channel sections where relevant; in broad, if processing personal data, lawful processing rules from the GDPR now apply. For guidance, we show below the most relevant Data Protection Authority - Garante - statements, together with EU documentation
Privacy issues should be reviewed with specialist advisors
The Italian Data Protection Authority Garante per la protezione dei dati personali is the independent authority established by the Personal Data Protection Code as responsible for monitoring application of the GDPR
Established by Article 29 of Directive 95/46/EC, hence the name. As of 25 May 2018 the Article 29 Working Party ceased to exist and has been replaced by the European Data Protection Board (EDPB). Nevertheless, WP29 papers/ guidelines remain valid. The 1997-2016 archive is here. Three key papers in this context are:
Ad labelling/ Identification
Endorsements/ Influencers (extract from Section 2 IAP Digital Chart)
“Promosso da … brand/Promoted by … brand” or
“Sponsorizzato da … brand/Sponsored by … brand”, or
“in collaborazione con … brand/In partnership with … brand”;
Invitation to purchase and advertising identification
Article 23 Consumer Code; Commercial practices which in all circumstances are misleading
1. In addition to the information obligations stipulated for specific goods and services, marketing communications that constitute an information society service (Any service normally provided for remuneration, at a distance, by electronic means and at the individual request of a recipient of services) or form an integral part thereof must contain specific information, from first dispatch, clearly and unequivocally, aimed at indicating:
Additionally, the service provider must make company information 'easily, directly and permanently accessible to the recipients of the service and competent authorities.' See Art. 7 LD 70/2003 for required information
The Italian Competition Authority AGCM investigated Influencer Marketing practices on social media; press release 24th July 2017 here
Note: the Consent rules referenced in this documentation and below may now be impacted by lawful processing rules from the GDPR. Garante have not, however, withdrawn documentation from their website, or adapted it accordingly. As this (communication by brands in social media) is highly sensitive territory, it’s best to review the position with specialist advisors
Privacy issues should be reviewed with specialist advisors
Important Garante case GALA October 6, 2023 re permissible period for data retention indicates new stance from regulator.
European Union: Targeted advertising on social networks: Is consent mandatory? (EN)
Haas Avocats 19 September 2023
William Fry/ Lex September 8, 2023. Connects with Meta news below
Privacy rules for targeted advertising in the UK and EU. Reed Smith/ Lex August 2023
Meta’s Ad Practices Ruled Illegal Under E.U. Law. From the NYT Jan 2023
EU Rules on Online Targeted Advertising from Covington and Burling/ Lex August 2022 sets out the existing targeted advertising rules and the impact of the DSA, in force January 2024
Effective 19 January 2022
Profiling/ Behavioural cookies
First 2 paras of this link:
Section 121 (m) of the DPC: electronic mail is defined as any text, voice, sound or image message sent over a public communications network, which can be stored in the network or in the recipient’s terminal equipment until it is collected by the recipient
From the Garante summary document ‘NO to Spam, YES to Consumer-Friendly Marketing’
The same principle that applies in paid space also applies in owned, such as marketers’ own websites and SNS spaces: if the communication from the owner is advertising, it’s in remit. Advertising is defined in the IAP Code here Definition ‘Advertising and all other forms of communication including corporate and institutional messages whose aim is to promote the sale of goods or services irregardless (sic) of the modalities (means) used, as well as forms of communication regulated by Title VI.’ (Charity appeals). Clearly, much content on owned websites won’t be advertising; for exemptions, e.g. UGC, see the EASA Recommendation linked below for some non-binding guidance. The IAP’s Digital Chart is also important in this context, as it explains disclosure/ recognisability requirements for various forms of website marcoms. Issues arise from the introduction of the GDPR: in the event that data processing (which may include cookies) identifies individuals, then lawful processing rules from the GDPR apply. Privacy issues should be reviewed with specialist advisors
Clause 6.2 Garante Guidelines on Marketing and against Spam, July 4 2013 EN:
EDPB guidelines 8/2020 on the targeting of social media users here; adopted April 2021 (EN)
Also known as sponsored or branded content, this is online and offline advertising designed to fit in with its ‘habitat’, to give consumers a visually consistent experience. IAB Europe’s December 2016 How to Comply with EU Rules Applicable to Online Native Advertising provides some categories of native ads, some good practice recommendations, and a summary of EU rules and their December 2021 Guide to Native Advertising provides 'up-to-date insight into native ad formats and key considerations and best practices for buyers.'
“Pubblicità/Advertising”, “Promosso da … brand/Promoted by … brand”
“Sponsorizzato da … brand/Sponsored by … brand”
“Contenuto Sponsorizzato/Sponsored content”
“Post Sponsorizzato/Sponsored post”
“Presentato da … brand/Presented by … brand”
'Blacklist': Article 23 (1) (m) and (aa) Consumer Code LD 206/2005 EN
Misleading omission: article 22(1), (2) and 22 (5) Consumer Code
Relevant extracts from the list of commercial practices which in all circumstances are misleading
Following feedback, we no longer cover Telemarketing
Article 22 of the Consumer Code (EN)
In the case of an invitation to purchase Definition A commercial communication which indicates characteristics of the product and the price in a way appropriate to the means of the commercial communication used and thereby enables the consumer to make a purchase the following information shall be regarded as material, within the meaning of paragraph (1), if not already apparent from the context:
Spotlight: organisation and commercialisation of sports events in Italy. Sports Generation/ Lex September 2022
from Portolano Cavallo/ Gala/ Mondaq May 9, 2022
Sponsors should take particular care to safeguard the inherent artistic, cultural, sporting or other content of the sponsorship property and should avoid any abuse of their position which might damage the identity, dignity, or reputations of the sponsored party or the sponsorship property
The sponsored party should not obscure, deform or bring into disrepute the image or trademarks of the sponsor, or jeopardise the goodwill or public esteem associated with them
The audience should be clearly informed of the existence of a sponsorship with respect to a particular event, activity, programme or person and the sponsor’s own message should not be likely to cause offence. Due note should be taken of existing professional ethics of the sponsored party
This article is not, however, intended to discourage sponsorship of avant-garde or potentially controversial artistic/cultural activities, or to encourage sponsors to exercise censorship over a sponsored party’s message
The European Sponsorship Association (ESA) may also be able to help/ inform
This website was created to provide international rules on marketing communications; we do not claim authority on specific Sales Promotions (SP) regulation, especially retail legislation, or law on the mechanics and administration of promotions. Italy in particular has some intricate legislation that we show below, but which we recommend be managed/ interpreted by specialist advisors. Self-regulatory codes and consumer protection legislation relating to promotional pricing is also shown below.
Note that promotional schemes requiring a purchase to take part, and offering prizes only on the basis of random chance, are considered to be a lottery and are generally illegal;
sales promotional material should observe the rules set out under the earlier content section B
See also pricing requirements under Point 3.2 in our content section B
e) Making an invitation to purchase products at a specified price without disclosing the existence of any reasonable grounds the trader may have for believing that he will not be able to offer for supply or to procure another trader to supply, those products or equivalent products at that price for a period that is, and in quantities that are, reasonable having regard to the product, the scale of advertising of the product and the price offered (bait advertising)
f) Making an invitation to purchase products at a specified price and then:
1. Refusing to show the advertised item to consumers, or
2. Refusing to take orders for it or deliver it within a reasonable time, or
3. Demonstrating a defective sample of it with the intention of promoting a different product (bait and switch)
g) Falsely stating that a product will only be available for a very limited time, or that it will only be available on particular terms for a very limited time, in order to elicit an immediate decision and deprive consumers of sufficient opportunity or time to make an informed choice
From the ICC Advertising and Marketing Communications Code (EN), Chapter A
Information should include, where relevant:
Where a sales promotion includes a prize promotion, the following information should be given to consumers, or at least made available on request, prior to participation and not conditional on purchasing the main product:
IAP (the self-regulatory body Istituto dell’Autodisciplina Pubblicitaria) provides copy advice on request and subject to a fee of 900€ + VAT for IAP members and 1.000€ + VAT for non-members. The whole list of tariffs can be found here on the IAP website.
The validity and completeness of the information, supplied with the approval of the advertisement, binds the IAP Review Board not to intervene against the approved communication. Copy advice is given within five working days, but particularly complex cases may require up to eight working days. In practice, however, the process usually takes less time. IAP can also offer an “express copy advice” within 24 hours.
The IAP website home page is http://www.iap.it
Direct to broadcaster
Allow 3-5 days TV/VOD
For help contact the Traffic Bureau firstname.lastname@example.org
Regulation (EU) 2016/679 Of The European Parliament and of The Council of 27 April 2016 on the protection of natural persons with regard to the processing of personal data and on the free movement of such data, and repealing Directive 95/46/EC (General Data Protection Regulation). The GDPR came into force May 25 2018
The GDPR is accompanied by Directive 2016/680, which is largely concerned with supervising procedures, and which should have been transposed into member states’ legislation by 6th May 2018
European Data Protection Authority
Article 29 Working Party/ EDPB
The Article 29 Working Party was established under article 29 (hence the name) of Directive 95/46/EC, the Personal Data Protection Directive. The arrival of the GDPR heralded the demise/ re-working of A29WP, and its replacement by the European Data Protection Board:
All documents from the former Article 29 Working Party remain available on this newsroom
Article 29 Working Party archives from 1997 to November 2016:
Five more recent and significant documents:
Opinion 5/2019 on the interplay between the ePrivacy Directive and the GDPR. Adopted on 12 March 2019
Commercial practices: UCPD
Directive 2005/29/EC of The European Parliament and of The Council of 11 May 2005 concerning unfair business-to-consumer commercial practices in the internal market and amending Council Directive 84/450/EEC, Directives 97/7/EC, 98/27/EC and 2002/65/EC and Regulation (EC) No 2006/2004 (the ‘Unfair Commercial Practices Directive’ UCPD). This is the legislation that most impacts marketing and advertising in Europe and whose origins form the foundations of Self-Regulatory regimes. The core provisions relate to unfair commercial practices, defined as ‘likely to materially distort the economic behaviour with regard to the product of the average consumer.’ In turn, unfair commercial practices are those that:
Annex I (known as ‘the blacklist’) contains the list of those commercial practices which ‘shall in all circumstances be regarded as unfair’. These are the only commercial practices which can be deemed to be unfair without a case-by-case test (i.e. assessing the likely impact of the practice on the average consumer's economic behaviour). The list includes e.g. encouragement to children to ‘pester’ (28), clear identification of commercial source in advertorial (11) and making ‘persistent and unwanted solicitations’ (26). The UCPD includes several provisions on promotional practices e.g. Article 6 (d) on the existence of a specific price advantage, Annex I point 5 on bait advertising, point 7 on special offers, points 19 and 31 on competitions and prize promotion, and point 20 on free offers. Some amendments to Directive 2005/29/EC are provided in Directive 2019/2161 linked below; these are supposed to be transposed by November 2021 and in force in member states by May 2022.
Guidance: On 17 December 2021, the European Commission adopted a new Commission Notice on the interpretation and application of the Unfair Commercial Practices Directive (‘the UCPD Guidance’)
The Omnibus Directive
Directive (EU) 2019/2161 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 27 November 2019 amending Council Directive 93/13/EEC and Directives 98/6/EC, 2005/29/EC and 2011/83/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council as regards the better enforcement and modernisation of Union consumer protection rules. This directive, which 'aims to strengthen consumer rights through enhanced enforcement measures and increased transparency requirements', sets out some new information requirements related to search rankings and consumer reviews under the UCPD 2005/29/EC, new pricing information under Directive 2011/83/EU in the context of automated decision-making and profiling of consumer behaviour, and price reduction information under the Product Pricing Directive 98/6/EC. More directly related to this database, and potentially significant for multinational advertisers, is the clause that amends article 6 (misleading actions) of the UCPD adding ‘(c) any marketing of a good, in one Member State, as being identical to a good marketed in other Member States, while that good has significantly different composition or characteristics, unless justified by legitimate and objective factors’. Recitals related to this clause, which provide some context, are here. Helpful explanatory piece on the Omnibus Directive 2019/2161 from A&L Goodbody via Lexology here. Provisions are supposed to be transposed by November 2021 and in force in member states by May 28, 2022.
Directive 98/6/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 16 February 1998 on consumer protection in the indication of the prices of products offered to consumers. The purpose of this Directive is to stipulate indication of the selling price and the price per unit of measurement of products offered by traders to consumers in order to improve consumer information and to facilitate comparison of prices (Article 1). For the purposes of this Directive, selling price shall mean the final price for a unit of the product, or a given quantity of the product, including VAT and all other taxes (Article 2a). While this legislation seems prima facie most suited to ‘goods on shelves’ as it requires unit prices (the final price, including VAT and all other taxes, for one kilogramme, one litre, one metre, one square metre or one cubic metre of the product), the Directive was used as the basis for a significant ECJ judgement on car pricing in advertising. Some amendments to Directive 98/6/EC related to price reduction information are provided in Directive 2019/2161 linked above; these are supposed to be transposed by November 2021 and in force in member states by May 28, 2022. The article concerned, 6a, is extracted here. Commission guidance on its application is below this entry.
Commission notice: Guidance on the interpretation and application of Article 6a of Directive 98/6/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council on consumer protection in the indication of the prices of products offered to consumers:
Directive 2006/114/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 12 December 2006 concerning misleading and comparative advertising. Article 4 of the MCAD provides that comparative advertising is permitted when eight conditions are met. The most significant of those for our purposes are a) it is not misleading within the meaning of Articles 2 (b), 3 and 8 (1) of this Directive or articles 6 and 7 of Directive 2005/29/EC (see above) and b) it compares goods or services meeting the same needs or intended for the same purpose. There are other significant conditions related to denigration of trademarks and designation of origin, imitation and the creation of confusion. Codified version:
Directive 2010/13/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 10 March 2010 on the coordination of certain provisions laid down by law, regulation or administrative action in Member States concerning the provision of audiovisual media services: the Audiovisual Media Services Directive, or AVMSD. This is the codified version of the much-amended Directive 89/552/EEC and represents the core European broadcast legislation, providing significant structural and content rules, applied largely consistently across member states. From a marcoms perspective, the core articles are 9 (Discrimination, safety, the environment, minors and some prohibitions), 10 (Sponsorship), 11 (Product Placement) and 22 (Alcoholic beverages rules).
Directive (EU) 2018/1808 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 14 November 2018 amending Directive 2010/13/EU on the coordination of certain provisions laid down by law, regulation or administrative action in Member States concerning the provision of audiovisual media services (Audiovisual Media Services Directive) in view of changing market realities. The background to this significant development of the AVMSD is here and there's a helpful piece from Simmons and Simmons LLP/ Lexology here. In broad terms, the Directive addresses the changes in media consumption in recent years and pays particular attention to the protection of minors in that context, extending rules to e.g. shared content on SNS. There are ‘strengthened provisions to protect children from inappropriate audiovisual commercial communications for foods high in fat, salt and sodium and sugars, including by encouraging codes of conduct at EU level, where necessary’. See article 4a. Rules for alcoholic beverages are extended to on-demand audiovisual media services, but those provisions (social/ sexual success etc.) are not amended.
Article 28b addresses video-sharing platform providers (VSPS), containing requirements to prevent violent, criminal, or otherwise offensive material and bringing the 'general' AV commercial communication rules such as those for the environment, human dignity, discrimination, minors etc. into these platforms. VSPS must also provide a functionality for users who upload user-generated videos to declare whether they contain commercial communications as far as they know or can be reasonably expected to know; VSPS must accordingly inform users. There has been some debate as to whether vloggers/ influencers are in scope, i.e. they or their output constitute an audiovisual media service. Definitive opinion/ recommendation is from the European Regulators Group for Audiovisual Media Services (ERGA) paper 'Analysis and recommendations concerning the regulation of vloggers.' The annex of the paper contains national examples. The Directive entered into force 18th December 2018; member states are required to have transposed into national law by 19th September 2020.
Directive 2002/58/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 12 July 2002 concerning the processing of personal data and the protection of privacy in the electronic communications sector (Directive on privacy and electronic communications, the ‘E-privacy Directive’). This Directive ‘provides for the harmonisation of the national provisions required to ensure an equivalent level of protection of fundamental rights and freedoms, and in particular the right to privacy and confidentiality, with respect to the processing of personal data in the electronic communication sector.’ The directive was amended by Directive 2009/136/EC; the ‘Cookie directive’, provisions found under article 5.3 of the E-Privacy Directive. Article 13 for Consent and ‘soft opt-in’ requirements
The ‘Cookie Directive’ 2009/136/EC amending Directive 2002/58/EC concerning the processing of personal data and the protection of privacy in the electronic communications sector. Article 2 provides amends to the E-privacy Directive above
Proposal for a Regulation of the European Parliament and of the Council concerning the respect for private life and the protection of personal data in electronic communications and repealing Directive 2002/58/EC (Regulation on Privacy and Electronic Communications):
Statement on the ePrivacy Regulation and the future role of Supervisory Authorities and the EDPB. Adopted on 19 November 2020:
February 2022 Clifford Chance/ Lex E-Privacy check-in: where we are, and where we're headed
March 2022 Härting Rechtsanwälte/ Lex ePrivacy Regulation: EU Council agrees on the draft
Directive 2000/31/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 8 June 2000 on certain legal aspects of information society services, in particular electronic commerce, in the Internal Market ('Directive on electronic commerce'). ‘information society services’ are defined as ‘any service normally provided for remuneration, at a distance, by electronic means and at the individual request of a recipient of services.’ Article 5 covers general information such as contact details from the ‘service provider’, which information should be made ‘easily, directly and permanently accessible to the recipients of the service’. The Directive also sets out under article 6 more specific information requirements for commercial communications which are part of, or constitute, an information society service. These include identifiability requirements and accessibility to conditions for promotions.
The Digital Services Act
Regulation (EU) 2022/2065 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 19 October 2022 on a Single Market For Digital Services and amending Directive 2000/31/EC (Digital Services Act). European Commission pages on the DSA are here. Wikipedia entry is here. Helpful legal commentary, which also addresses the Digital Markets Act, is from DLA Piper/ Lex February 2023: Online advertising: A regulatory patchwork under construction. Key marcoms issues for advertisers/ platforms are the identification of advertising material and parameters used for its targeting and the prohibition of advertising based on profiling that uses using special data categories such as religious belief, health data sexual orientation etc. (art.26), or if the platform has reason to believe the recipient is a minor (art. 28). The Regulation applies from February 2024.
The Digital Markets Act
Regulation (EU) 2022/1925 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 14 September 2022 on contestable and fair markets in the digital sector and amending Directives (EU) 2019/1937 and (EU) 2020/1828 (Digital Markets Act). European Commission pages are here; from those: 'Some large online platforms act as "gatekeepers" in digital markets. The Digital Markets Act aims to ensure that these platforms behave in a fair way online. Together with the Digital Services Act, the Digital Markets Act is one of the centrepieces of the European digital strategy.' Wikipedia entry is here. Article 2a prohibits the processing, for the purpose of providing online advertising services, personal data of end users using services of third parties that make use of core platform services of the gatekeeper, unless the end user has been presented with the specific choice and has given consent within the meaning of Article 4, point (11), and Article 7 of Regulation (EU) 2016/679. The Regulation entered into force on 1st November 2022 and applied on 2nd May, 2023. Gatekeepers will be identified and they will have to comply by 6th March 2024 at the latest.
Consumer Code. Legislative Decree No. 206 of 6 September 2005. Entry into force 23/10/2005. The Code applies to all forms of advertising regardless of the means used. Key amendments are from Legislative Decree August 2, 2007, No. 146 implementing the Unfair commercial Practices Directive (UCPD) 2005/29/EC (see arts. 18-27 Consumer Code), and Legislative Decree February 21, 2014 No. 21 implementing the Consumer Rights Directive 2011/83/EC (arts. 45-67 Consumer Code). This is the core legislation related to marketing and advertising, covering misleadingness in the form of misleading acts and omissions and including rules on 'invitation to purchase' (art. 22) and distance selling. Directive 2019/2161 - the Omnibus Directive - amended both the UCPD and the Product Pricing Directive PPD 98/6/EC, creating new rules in the UCPD related to the transparency of search rankings, the authenticity of consumer reviews and the consistency of international campaigns. New price reduction rules were established in the PPD. These amends were transposed (rather late in Italy) by the Legislative Decree No. 26 of March 7, 2023 (IT) into the Consumer Code and are found under articles 17, 22 and 23:
Unofficial non-binding GRS translation:
Legislative Decree of 2nd August 2007, No. 145. Implementing Article 14 of Directive 2005/29/EC, amending Directive 84/450/EEC on misleading advertising, now codified as Directive 2006/114/EC concerning misleading and comparative advertising. Entry into force 21/09/2007. The Decree is exclusive to the protection of businesses, as Directive 2006/114/EC applies to B2B relations. Article 4 sets out the conditions under which comparative advertising is considered lawful. The Decree covers advertising only where such advertising may harm a competitor, but does not cause direct consumer detriment. Where a consumer is affected, the Consumer Code is applicable.
AGCM translation is here
Italian Civil Code
Royal Decree of 16 March 1942 No. 262. Approval of the text of the Civil Code. (GU 79 of 04.04.1942) Entry into force 19.4.1942:
- Section 2250 provides the information that must be shown on websites/ emails; mirrors the provisions set out in Article 7 LD 70/2003
- Section 2598 outlines the basic principles of unfair competition and does not include any direct reference to advertising. However, practice in some case law has taken advantage of the broad definition provided in article 2598 (3) to incorporate misleading, confusing or denigrating advertising within the meaning of acts of unfair competition. In the case L’Oreal v Johnson & Johnson, comparative advertising was deemed to constitute unfair competition. Article 2598 (3) states that: “anyone commits an act of unfair competition who directly or indirectly uses any other means not in conformity with the principles of professional correctness, and able to damage another’s company”. English translation of key articles:
Legislative Decree of 9th April 2003, No. 70. Entry into force 14/05/2003. Implementing Directive 2000/31/EC on certain legal aspects of information society services; known as the E-Commerce Directive. This decree applies to Information Society Service Providers (ISSP’s), defined as “any service normally provided for remuneration, at a distance, by electronic means, and at the individual request of a recipient of the service” (Art. 2 LD 70/2003). The requirement for an ISS to be “normally provided for remuneration” does not restrict scope to services giving rise to buying and selling online; the Decree also covers services that are not directly remunerated by those who receive them, such as those services offering online information. The Decree establishes information requirements for commercial communications, i.e. any form of communication designed to promote, directly or indirectly, the goods, services or image of a company, organisation or person pursuing a commercial, industrial or craft activity, or exercising a regulated profession (Art. 8). Article 12 sets out information required to conclude a contract electronically.
English translation of relevant articles:
Law 20 November 2017, No. 167 Provisions for the fulfilment of the obligations deriving from Italy's membership of the European Union - European Law 2017: Entry into force 12/12/2017. (LEGGE 20 novembre 2017, No. 167 Disposizioni per l'adempimento degli obblighi derivanti dall'appartenenza dell'Italia all'Unione europea - Legge europea 2017). This ‘enabling’ law prepared for Regulation (EU) 679/2016 on the protection of natural persons with regard to the processing of personal data and on the free movement of such data:
Guidelines from the national authority
From the Italian Data Protection Authority Garante per la Protezione dei data Personali Guide on the application of EU Regulation in the matter of protection of personal data updated edition February 2018 (IT)
Legislative Decree of 30th June 2003, No. 196. Personal Data Protection Code (containing provisions for the adaptation of national law to Regulation (EU) No. 2016/679 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 27 April 2016 on the protection of individuals concerning the processing of personal data and the free movement of such data and repealing Directive 95/46/EC). Entry into force 01/01/2004. The Decree originally implemented Data Protection Directive 95/46/EC and Directive 2002/58/EC, the E-Privacy Directive. The Legislative Decree of 10 August 2018, No. 10 re-named the Code and applied amendments resulting from the introduction of GDPR, essentially repealing and re-structuring large sections; see link below. The core consent rules from articles 23 and 24 are now assigned to the GDPR regime. Title X, Chapter I covers privacy in electronic communications, providing opt-in/ opt-out requirements for marketing across various channels, implementing Directive 2002/58/EC. The key section 130 is amended in some data processing aspects, but its opt-in provision remains. There is comment in Italian regulatory circles that the legitimate interest aspect of the GDPR does not seem to be addressed. See DLA Piper blog here. The regulatory authority is the Data Protection authority garante per la protezione dei dati personali; see entries below
English translation from Garante:
Note: the arrival of the GDPR created a new regime in the lawfulness of the processing of personal data. Most of the entries/ DPA decisions below were established pre GDPR. While decisions may well remain applicable (some are not impacted by GDPR, and some may anyway be consistent with GDPR), interpretation of the different aspects of decisions to different aspects of marketing communications may vary. In short, especially while this territory is somewhat uncertain, the opinion of specialist advisors should be obtained
Data Protection Authority (Garante per la protezione dei dati personali). The DPA or ‘Garante’ was established in 1997 when the former Data Protection Act came into force (675/1996). It is an independent authority set up to protect fundamental rights and freedoms in connection with the processing of personal data.
The application of EU Regulation in the matter of protection of personal data; updated edition February 2018:
Guidelines on the processing of personal data for online profiling; March 19, 2015
How to lawfully email advertising messages
European Regulation: Guidelines for DPOs; May 24 2021
Guidelines for cookies and other tracking tools; June 10 2021
FAQ on cookies (June 2021)
See also under the header Direct Marketing below
B2B unsolicited communications
DPA Decision 13 November 2012. This decision is on the applicability of Section 130 (Data Protection Code – LD 193/2003)) relating to protection from unsolicited marketing. It confirms that the provisions on marketing obligations are still applicable to legal entities and not only to natural persons. The decision came in response to legislative amendments (Decree Law 201/2011), which excluded legal entities from the definition of ‘data subject’ and consequently protection from unsolicited communications. Decree No. 69/2012, subsequently amended the Code to replace 'data subjects' with 'contracting parties', extending the protection to legal entities once again. Garante confirmed that while legal entities now benefit from the protection under section 130 as 'contracting parties', they remain excluded from other sections, which still refer to 'data subjects' or 'personal data'.
Privacy/ opt-out register
Presidential Decree 7 September 2010, No. 178. Regulation establishing and managing the public register of subscribers who are opposed to the use of their phone number for sales or sales promotions. Entry into force 17/11/2010. The Presidential Decree created the public opt-out register or Register of Opposition (registro pubblico delle opposizioni as referenced in Article 130 (3-bis) of the Data Protection Code in relation to telemarketing activities, which now allows companies to make unsolicited telemarketing calls to any individual whose number is listed in a public telephone directory (electronic/ printed) provided that they have not objected by registering their telephone number on the Register. In July 2011, the opt-out system was extended to include direct mail (Decree Law 13 May 2011, No. 70). In English (Garante translation):
Law of January 11, 2018, No. 5. New provisions on the registration and functioning of the register of oppositions and establishment of national prefixes for telephone calls for statistical, promotional and market research purposes:
Opt-out Register registro pubblico delle opposizioni. The Register is a 'do not call' list of telephone numbers; legal entities as well as individuals are entitled to register (see definition of subscriber in DPR). The Data Protection Authority La Garante supervises the operation of the Register as per Article 130 (3-quart) DPC, 3c in the amended version of the Code.
English translation of article 122:
For guidance on cookies, see entries under the DPA above
Italian DPA via its decision dated 19 June 2008 (published in Italy's Official Journal no. 152 dated 1st July 2008 as well as on www.garanteprivacy.it under web document No. 1526724, link below). Re Soft Opt-in principle outlined in Art. 130 (4) of the DPC for email marketing extended to Direct mail marketing:
Direct marketing (general)
Guidelines relating to promotional activity and combating spam: July 4th 2013 Doc. no. web. 2542348. The Guidelines lay down the first consolidated set of measures and precautions helping companies plan marketing campaigns with special focus on unsolicited marketing using social networking services (SNS), viral and targeted marketing. Doc. No. 2542348 (IT) GRS trans EN; Garante trans EN Doc No. 4304228
Section 2: Consent to processing of personal data for purposes of direct marketing. Section 6.1: Social Media and 6.2: Viral Marketing. IT:
English translation of key provisions:
DPA Guidelines 23/07/2013 No. 2554512. 'No to spam, yes to consumer friendly marketing' (EN). Guidelines by the Garante on unsolicited commercial communications. Provides a summary of the guidelines from Doc. no. 2542348.
General decision: Consent to data processing for direct marketing purposes by means of traditional and automated systems. May 15, 2013 Doc. No. Web 2543820. This decision aims further to simplify the requirements applying to direct marketing. It complements Doc no. 2542348 and clarifies that consent obtained for the purposes of direct marketing by means of emails, sms, fax etc…(as per Art. 130(1&2) DPC) also covers marketing carried out by more traditional methods such as telemarketing, direct mail:
English translation of key provisions:
D.P.R. (Presidential Decree) No. 430 of 26 October 2001 on ‘Regulations concerning the comprehensive revision of standards governing contests, reward-based loyalty programmes and local draws pursuant to article 19 (4) of Law 449/1997 of 27 December’. The Decree regulates both prize competitions and prize operations, the two types of sales promotions with prizes that are permitted in Italy. Prize Contests (concorsi a premio) are awarded on the basis of chance (raffle) or special skill; Prize Operations (Operazioni a premio) concern the provision of prizes to each and every purchaser of a product. Prior notification to the Ministry of Economic Development (via Prima online at www.impresa.gov.it) is required.
Consumer Code LD 206/2005 (shown above under Legislation) implements the Unfair Commercial Practices Directive 2005/29/EC. Sales promotions fall within the scope of the Directive: commercial practices such as combined or tied offers, discounts, price reductions, promotional sales, commercial lotteries, competitions, and vouchers are regulated by its provisions, transposed into the Consumer Code.
Note: The above selections are only two important regulations within Sales Promotions, which is a heavily regulated activity in Italy. The full list of decrees can be found here:
The Consolidated Text on Radio and Audiovisual Media Services (Testo unico dei servizi di media audiovisivi e radiofonici), known as the AVMS Code; Legislative Decree No. 177 31st July 2005. The AVMS Directive 2007/65/EC, codified 2010/13/EC, was implemented by Legislative Decree No. 44/2010, the ‘Romani Decree’, which amended the original Broadcasting Code so as to align it to the AVMS Directive. The AVMS Code regulates TV and Radio and incorporates all audiovisual media services (linear: analogue and digital TV, live streaming, webcasting and near VOD; non-linear: VOD). The Act is enforced by the Italian Communications Authority AGCOM who adopted two regulations in 2010 which confirmed that the scope of the regulations will extend to those service providers that have editorial responsibility and an annual income in excess of €100,000; it will not include UGC portals such as Youtube, Vimeo. Consolidated text: English translation of key provisions:
Repealed by the below (art. 70)
Legislative Decree No. 208/2121 of 8 November, 2021. Implementation of Directive (EU) 2018/1808 of the European Parliament and of the Council, of November 14, 2018, amending Directive 2010/13/EU, on the coordination of certain provisions laid down by law, regulation or administrative action in Member States, concerning the consolidated act for the supply of audiovisual media services in view of changing market realities. This Decree, as it describes in the title, implements Directive 2018/1808 which amended the AVMSD 2010/13/EU, reflecting the 'digitisation' of audiovisual media in Europe and so extending scope online and in particular to video-sharing platforms (VSPS). The Decree repeals the AVMS Code (LD 177/2005) above and carries many of its provisions. For our (commercial communication) purposes, those are largely found in Chapter III - article 43 for the 'general' AV rules prohibiting discrimination, offense, protecting minors etc. and articles 46 and 48 for sponsorship and product placement. VSPS provisions are under Chapter II and require those platforms to identify commercial content where they are aware of it. Helpful piece on the Directive from Simmons and Simmons LLP here.
Law No. 112 of 3 May 2004 (‘Gasparri Law’). Regulations establishing principles for the organisation of the radio and television system and Rai-Radiotelevisione Italiana SpA, as well as granting authority to the Government to issue a consolidated radio and television law. RAI is Italy’s national public broadcasting company; article 10 Protection of Minors in TV programmes mirrors the AVMS Code and Framework Law (125/2001), stating broadcasters must observe the Self-Regulatory Code on Media and Minors. Broadcasters are also required to apply specific measures in programming from 16.00 to 19.00 and within programmes aimed at minors. Consolidated text:
The Self-Regulatory Code on Media and Minors (EN):
The IAP Self-Regulation Code of Marketing Communication, 68th edition effective February 9th, 2021 (Codice Di Autodisciplina Della Comunicazione Commerciale). The IAP (Istituto dell’Autodisciplina Pubblicitaria) is Italy’s advertising standards authority since 1966. Rules are enforced by the Review Board (Comitato di Controllo) and Jury (Giurì). The Code is binding only on IAP members or those advertisers otherwise contracted. Scope: The term 'marketing communication' is defined as any type of communication, either private or public, including advertising, used to promote the sale of goods or services irrespective of the means used. The Code includes general rules and behaviours to which marcoms must comply in Title I. Special Rules of the Code in Title II covers A. marcoms rules applicable to sales systems and B. specific product categories. The Code also incorporates a number of Regulations (EN), which 'form an integral part of the Code'. These include e.g. the 'Digital Chart' (see below) and in February 2021 the Regulation governing marketing communication for food products and beverages to protect children and ensure healthy eating, added in the context of amends to the AVMS Directive.
IAP Digital Chart
The objective of the Chart is to review the most common forms of marketing communication on the web and in the digital world in general, and to establish criteria for the recognisability of marketing communication in compliance with Article 7 of the IAP Code. The forms of online communication covered in the Digital Chart include:
Endorsements via celebrities/ influencers/ bloggers, vloggers, and UGC
Native advertising in the form of in-feed units, paid search units, and recommendations widgets
In-app advertising and
IAP translation: scroll down to the entry ‘Digital Chart Regulations on the Recognizability of Marketing Communication Distributed over the Internet':
ICC Advertising and Marketing Communications Code 2018
Chapter A: Sales Promotion
Chapter B : Sponsorship
The ICC Framework for Responsible Environmental Marketing Communications 2021. 'The updated 2021 Environmental Framework provides added guidance on some established environmental claims and additional guidance on some emerging claims' and 'a summary of the principles of the ICC Code including those outlined in Chapter D on environmental claims and supplements them with additional commentary and guidance to aid practitioners in applying the principles to environmental advertising.' Appendix I carries an Environmental Claims Checklist 'that marketers may find useful in evaluating their environmental claims.'
ICC Resource Guide for Self-Regulation of Online Behavioural Advertising: It’s a ‘Resource Guide’, rather than rules per se, showing: explanation of global framework available for OBA self-regulation, checklist from existing OBA self-regulatory mechanisms on how to implement the global principles and links to further resources. The ICC's OBA rules are under C22 of their General Code; we have extracted the rules here
Mobile Supplement to the ICC Resource Guide for Self-Regulation of Interest-based Advertising
ICC Guide for Responsible Mobile Marketing Communications
The ICC’s Guidance on Native Advertising:
Self-Regulatory Code On Media and Minors (Codice di autoregolamentazione media e minori). The Code was signed by major public and private broadcasting companies and approved on 29 Nov 2002. The agreement was recognised by law No. 112/04 Article 10 (1) (the Gasparri Law – see earlier entry), and referenced in the AVMS Code Article 34 (6). The enactment of these statutes has made the Agreement binding on all TV broadcasters regardless of the type of platform employed (analogue, satellite, digital terrestrial, IPTV online TV). Section 4 provides rules on advertising with three levels of protection: General, Enhanced 7am-4pm and 7pm-10.30pm, and Specific 4pm-7pm
Section 4 GRS translation:
Self-Regulatory Code on Internet Services (Codice di Autoregolamentazione per i Servizi Internet; ISC). Put together by AIIP, the Association of Italian Internet Providers, and Assinform, the Italian Association of Information and Communication Technology. Section 9e of the Internet Services Code specifically refers to the IAP Self-Regulatory Code of Marketing Communication. Therefore, the IAP Code will be binding on the companies that adhere to the ISC.
Asstel Telemarketing Code. Asstel is the official Employers’ Association of the telecommunication operators (fixed, mobile, internet etc.). Their Code lays out consumer protection rules in Telemarketing:
The Italian Competition Authority (AGCM). The Competition Authority, also known as the Antitrust Authority, was established in Italy in 1990 by Law 287/1990. As of 2007, the Authority has been responsible for the protection of consumers from unfair commercial practices, as well as from all misleading advertising. In order to ensure fair market competition, it may also intervene in comparative advertising:
Italian Communications Authority (Autorità per le garanzie nelle comunicazioni) AGCOM. An independent body set up in accordance with Law No. 249 of 31 July 1997, an ‘umbrella’ authority for both the audio-visual and the telecommunications sectors. Agcom is empowered to issue regulations and guidelines for advertising in this area, usually in the form of deliberations.
DMA Italy. Association for Data Driven Marketing. The mission of DMA Italy, a member of FEDMA (see below), is to facilitate the practice of direct communication in all media channels available today (off-line, on-line, mobile, social). DMAItalia do not, as far as we can establish, publish a Code:
IAB Italy. From their website (GT) ‘... is the Italian charter of the Interactive Advertising Bureau, the most important association in the field of digital advertising worldwide and represents the entire chain of the interactive communication market in Italy. ‘
How to Comply with EU Rules Applicable to Online Native Advertising:
IAB Transparency and Consent Framework:
World Federation of Advertisers: WFA
From the website: 'WFA is the only global organisation representing the common interests of marketers. It brings together the biggest markets and marketers worldwide, representing roughly 90% of all the global marketing communications spend, almost US$ 900 billion annually. WFA champions responsible and effective marketing communications':
This is their ‘GDPR Guide for Marketers’:
The WFA launched their Planet Pledge in April 2021
And Global Guidance on Environmental Claims April 2022
The European Advertising Standards Alliance is a non-profit organisation based in Brussels; it brings together national advertising self-regulatory organisations (SROs, such as the ARPP) and other organisations representing the advertising industry in Europe and beyond. EASA is "the European voice for advertising self-regulation". The following link provides access to alliance membership:
EASA’s Best Practice recommendations
Influencer Marketing (2023)
Federation of European Direct and Interactive Marketing (FEDMA). FEDMA is the principal source of knowledge of the DM channel across Europe:
The European Sponsorship Association can be found at: